Biographical Dictionary of Postbellum Rice Culture
This biographical dictionary contains brief entries on persons with deep ties to the postbellum Rice Kingdom. Due to the bias of the sources it is heavily tilted toward planters but it includes laborers, millers, factors, and shippers. We always welcome corrections and additions to the dictionary. Please email us with your contribution.
Allston, Col. Benjamin, Planter. (Feb. 25, 1833-Jan. 16, 1900) – Planter, Son of R. F. W. He planted Guendalos, but gave it up finding he could not adjust to free labor. He became an Episcopal minister.
Allston, William Allen (June 21, 1834-November 14, 1878)– Planter. He planted Woodville on the Waccamaw.
Allsworth, J. L. K. – Planter. He planted Allsworth’s in Christ Church – St. James Santee area during Reconstruction.
Alston, Charles Sr. – Planter. He planted Midway, Fairfield, and Belleview in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Alston, Charles Jr. – Planter. He planted Benventum, True Blue, and Wilderness in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Anderson, J. J. – Planter. Owner of Anderson Company that operated Harry Hill, Manchester, Pimlico, and Wappahoola in the Monks Corner district during Reconstruction.
Ball, Keating J. – Planter. Operated Comingtee in the Monks Corner district during Reconstruction.
Ball, William J. (Oct. 14, 1821-April 26, 1891)– Planter. He planted Limerick plantation until his death.
Barnwell, Edward (July 22, 1813-Jan. 12, 1885) – Planter. He inherited Prospect Hill and planted it until his death.
Barnwell, Stephen Elliott – Planter. He purchased Prospect Hill on the Edisto from Edward Barnwell’s estate in 1885. Ravenel and Company took over the plantation in 1894 in payment of debt.
Barker, Major Theodore G. (8/24/1832-1917)– Planter, Lawyer. He began planting at Mulberry on the Cooper River with overseer Peter Nelson. He owned lands managed by his nephew, Samuel G. Fitzsimmons, on the Edisto River beginning in 1880. Plantations included: Bonny Hall, Block Island, Springfield, The Cut. Head of Lowcountry rifle clubs in 1876 and president of the Jockey Club and St. Cecelia Society.
Bee, William C. – (d. April 19, 1881) Factor. A major rice factor and firm name in Charleston in the late antebellum and postbellum. He also invested in phosphate businesses.
Bell, William (April 1, 1837-1913) – Planter. He owned Pine Grove on the Black River.
Bennett, I. S. R. – Planter. He planted Cat Island in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Bischoff, Henry – Planter, Planted on the Edisto in 1893 and remained active until at least 1913 on the Combahee River.
Bissell, H. E. Dr. – Planter. Planted Bonny Hall, Hobonny, and others on the Combahee in 1870s and 1893. Brother of J. Bennett and partner in Bissell Brothers and Company.
Bissell, J. Bennett (1836 -May 3, 1892)– Planter, Merchant. Bissell came from Dallas County, Alabama to Charleston in late antebellum and ran Bissell Brothers Hardware store on Meeting Street. After serving in the war he became the largest postbellum rice planter. He mainly operated on the Combahee River and he managed Bonny Hall, Vineyard, Cypress, Rose Hill, Laurel Spring, Smithfield, Hughes, Hickory Hill, Cockfield, and Hobonny.
Bissell, O. H. – Broker. He was Vice-president of the Carolina Rice Company in 1912.
Blake, Daniel, (1803-1873)– Planter. Owned Board House and other plantations at the time of the Civil War.
Blake, Daniel – Planter. Planted on the Combahee until late 1910s where he made a reputation for his seed rice.
Bradley, Aaron A. – (1815-1881) Activist. Bradley escaped slavery in Georgia and returned to Savannah after the Civil War. He became involved in a famous incident in 1866 as a leader of black resistance to land restoration at Delta Plantation (see Cheves, Langdon III).
Brown, W. M. – Planter. Planted Prospect Hill plantation until 1910s.
Buck, Henry (April 3, 1800-Oct. 1, 1870) – Planter, Sawmiller. He moved to Carolina in 1829 and founded Buckville (1835) and Bucksport and planted rice after purchasing Woodbourne plantation.
Campbell, ? – Planter. Operated on the Ashepoo River in 1893.
Carson, Hare? – Planter. Operated Gippy in the Monks Corner district during Reconstruction.
Chaplin, D. J. – Planter. Somewhere on Combahee River he was one of the last operating.
Cheves, Henry (d. 1951) - Planter and rice/ cotton broker. He had part interest in Newport Plantation and was trustee of Clay Hall. He worked in conjunction with his brother Langdon Cheves, III.
Cheves, Langdon III – Planter, lawyer, businessman. He had interests in Delta, Newport, Weehaw, and Trimbleston plantations.
Chisholm, Casper – (d. March 20, 1910) Businessman. He was involved in phosphates.
Chisholm, H. L. – Miller. Operated Chisholm’s Mill in Postbellum Charleston.
Clausen, J. H. C. – (d. Sept. 1910) Planter, businessman.
Coachman, E. P. – Planter. Planted Oatland plantation during Reconstruction.
Cohen, Hanckel and Company – Factors. Operating out of Charleston circa 1870 and seem to have been financial backers of many planters.
Deas, Adam R. – Planter. Freedman and rice planter at Pinebury plantation from 1860s-1879.
Deas, Anne Simons – Planter. For a short time tried operating her family’s plantation.
Deas, ? – Planter. He planted Crow Island in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Doar, E. M. – Planter. Planted Oakley Plantation near Georgetown.
Ferreneau, ? – Planter. He planted Hagley in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
FitzSimons, Samuel G. – Planter. Theodore Ravenel called the FitzSimmons the best planter on the Edisto River. Willtown Bluff became his in 1911 though he may have managed it as early as 1893. He managed the Edisto properties of his uncle, Major Barker: Springfield, The Cut, Bonny Hall and Block Island.
Flagg, J. Ward (d. Aug. 1893) – Planter. He Planted Brookgreen on the Waccamamw River. He is known in part because he and his family perished in the hurricane of 1893 and gave their name to that event the “Flagg Storm.”
Ford, Fred W. (died July 8, 1930) – Planter. He grew up on a Santee plantation. In 1897 worked for Lucas on the Santee and then he bought Rice Hope and Bear Hill. The 1908 storm ended this endeavor and he relocated to Wedgefield on Black River until 1920.
Ford, J. R. – Planter. He planted Waterford in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Ford, Stephenus – Planter. He planted Friendfield plantation on the Waccamaw during Reconstruction.
Frazier, Benjamin R. – Planter. He planted Exchange and Breakwater plantations during Reconstruction.
Freeman, John T. – Planter. He was among the last to plant rice.
Gahagan, James – Planter. He was an Ashepoo River planter in 1893. He bought Antwerp in 1887 and already owned Ravenswood, Drainfield, Oaks, Fee Farm, and Lavington; all on the Ashepoo and bought in the 1880s with David McPherson. Gahagan also leased Palmetto plantation in the late 1870s. Gahagan must have died in the late 1890s or early 1900s since his family sold Antwerp in 1906. The co-owned MacPherson plantations were sold earlier.
Gonzales, Ambrose Elliott (1857-1926) – Journalist. He grew up in a prominent planter family though he never actually planted himself. He came of age after the Civil War and co-founded The State newspaper. Biographical sketch of his life appeared in the Dictionary of American Biography.
Gourdin, Pierre. – Planter. He planted Cote Bas and Mepkin Abbey during Reconstruction.
Gregorie, John B. – Planter. He planted on the Combahee at Richfield and Brewton. He was among the last rice planters.
Grimball, Berkely (b. 1833) – Planter. He inherited part title to the Grove in 1890 and Pinebury in 1892. He graduated from College of Charleston in 1853 and served in the Confederate army.
Hamilton, Thomas – Legislator, Planter. Hamilton was a former slave but became a planter during Reconstruction and a state legislator from Beaufort.
Hasell, Dr. L. C. – Planter. He operated a plantation on Wacammaw Neck during Reconstruction.
Haskell, Charlie H. – Planter. He planted some property on Combahee River.
Haskell, Louis W. – Planter. He operated Delta plantation on the Savannah River in the late 19th century until 1901.
Haskell, Paul – Planter. He planted rice on the Savannah River land was likely the son of Louis W. Haskell.
Haskell, William F. Jr. – Planter. Near the end of commercial rice culture he planted Rotterdam and was also involved with the Combahee Corporation.
Hays, Kate – Planter. She owned Rose Hill in Christ Church – St. James Santee area during Reconstruction.
Henry, C. W. – Broker. He was a sea island cotton and rice broker based in Charleston after 1900.
Heyward, Duncan Clinch – Planter, Governor, Author. Heyward inherited several plantations and planted on the Combahee from 1887 until 1913.
Heyward, James B. (Oct. 9, 1817-Dec. 27, 1886) – Planter. He ran Copenhagen, Hamburgh, Myrtle Grove, and Rotterdam plantations. He had some interest in Gowrie too.
Heyward, James B. Jr. – Planter. He managed Gowrie for the Manigaults in the 1870s.
Heyward, William Henry (Dec. 11, 1817- June 30, 1889) – Planter. He owned or managed numerous plantations including Clay Hall, Blandford, Dawson’s and Elliot’s all on the Combahee.
Horlbeck, F. H. – Planter. He operated Boone Hall during Reconstruction.
Horry E. – Planter. He planted Milldam and Newland on the Santee during late 1860s.
Hucks, John M. – Overseer. He managed Chickasee for Arnoldus Vanderhorst in 1860s.
Huger, J. A. – Planter, Miller. Huger was a Savannah rice planter that rented Delta in the 1900s. He also acted as manager of the Planter’s Rice Mill Company in the 1890s.
Hudson, Frank- Planter. He planted Turkey Hill in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Ingraham, W. Postell – Planter. He operated Fishpond in the Monks Corner district during Reconstruction.
Irving, A. – Planter. He operated Kensington in the Monks Corner district during Reconstruction.
Jaycocks, William E. – Planter. Jaycocks oversaw D.C. Heyward’s operations and together they ran the Combahee Corporation: Rose Hill and Myrtle Grove. Born in New York he grew up in the Lowcountry and began in rice in 1867.
Jones, Squire – (d. 1897) Overseer. From 1855 to 1889 he managed various Heyward family plantations. He retired due to health.
King, Samuel B. – Planter. He ran Lower Topsaw plantation on the Pee Dee River during Reconstruction.
La Bruce, John – Planter. He planted Oak Hill in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Lachicotte, F. W. – Miller. He was proprietor of Waverly Mills and Lachicotte and sons.
Lachicotte, Phillip B. – Planter. He planted Brookgreen and Springfield plantations during Reconstruction.
Lachicotte, St. John M. – Miller. He was co-propreiter of Waverly and Lachicotte and Sons.
Lawton, William – Planter. He gave an address at the Selma convention of 1871.
Landers, James – Planter. He planted a plantation on the Ashepoo River during Reconstruction.
Lebby, William – (d. Oct. 2, 1882) Miller. He acted as agent or manager for West Point Mill and on Board of directors 1870s- 1910s.
Leonard, John T. – Broker. By 1910 he reportedly represented three-quarters of rice planters in state.
Lowndes, I’on – Planter. A Santee River planter called one of the best by T. Ravenel.
Lowndes, Rawlins Jr. – Planter. He took over Oakland from his father in 1866 and left it to his family in 1920. He also owned Laurel Spring and Anderson Island, but sold these in 1879. He was a confederate veteran.
Lucas, ? – Planter. He operated on the Ashepoo River in 1893.
Lucas, E. M. – Planter. He planted the Oaks in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Lynah, Heyward – Planter. He planted on Carolina side of the Savannah River and was one of the last.
McCurdy, Richard – Planter. He planted on Combahee as late as 1913 possibly running Tomotley.
McDonald, H. L. – Planter. He planted Lark Hill in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
McIver, ? – Planter. He operated on the Combahee River in 1893.
Manigault, Arthur – Planter. According to Theodore Ravenel Manigault was one of the two best planters on Santee River.
Manigault, Gabriel E. (b. 1833) - Planter. He managed Silk Hope plantation from 1866-1873.
Manigault, Louis – Planter. He owned Gowrie Plantation in the postbellum era.
Marvin, S. A. – Planter. He was one of the last planters. He planted on Combahee as late as 1913. Possibly related is that a Samuel Marvin managed Twickenham in 1860.
Mazyck, W. St. Julien – Planter. He took possession of Hagley and Weehauka plantations in 1866. He planted these himself before leasing the land out around 1879.
Means, Edward B. – Planter. He planted Means [Shifnal] plantation on the Ashepoo River in 1893.
Melchers, L. A. – Broker. He operated a wholesale grocery in Charleston and handled rice as part of that business.
Middleton, A. DeLancey (1850-Dec. 9, 1884)– Planter. He planted Weehaw plantation until his early death.
Middleton, Annie E. (1847) – Philanthropist. He ran the Carolina Rice Company as a charitable endeavor in the late 1860s.
Middleton, Arthur, (1832) – Planter. He planted on the North Santee in the years after the war.
Middleton, Nathaniel Russell (1810-1890) – Planter, scholar. Besides serving as president of the College of Charleston he planted rice at Bolton on the Stono before 1860. He founded the Carolina Rice Company after the Civil War.
Middleton, Ralph Izard – Planter. He owned Windsor and Weehaw before the Civil War and during Reconstruction.
Middleton, Williams – Planter. The scion of the Middleton family, oversaw Henry Middleton’s estate including: Middleton Place, Hobonny, Newport, and Old Combahee. He was active in the antebellum and Reconstruction periods.
Milliken, John B. – Planter. He owned Mulberry Plantation and operated it 1863-1889.
Morrell, W. G. – Broker. He acted as a rice factor or broker in Savannah circa 1905.
Patterson, Angus – Planter. He planted White House on Ashepoo River and Horseshoe Creek from 1877 through 1893 and further.
Parker, T. S. – Planter. He planted Mansfield, Keithfield, and Willowbank in Georgetown area during Reconstruction. A Francis Parker also associated with these at the same time.
Pinckney, Thomas – Planter. He held several plantations during Reconstruction including Indianfield, Fairfield, and Elderado in the St. James Santee area.
Poppenheim, ? – Planter. He operated Point Comfort in the Monks Corner district during Reconstruction. (Possibly same as Henry below)
Poppenheim, Henry N. – Planter. He was one of the last and worked on the Combahee River.
Pringle, Elizabeth Allston – Planter, Author. She planted Chicora Wood plantation on Waccamaw Neck until 1912 and wrote newspaper articles about her experience ultimately publishing several books.
Ravenel, Theodore D. – Planter. He was reputedly the last rice planter. Planted first on Cooper River in 1881, later moved to the Edisto and finished his career on the Combahee at Rose Hill and Prospect Hill until 1927.
Read, J. Harleston – Planter. He planted Willow Bank in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Read, Oliver Middleton – (d. 1921) Planter. He planted Rice Hope and later Hobonny until his death in 1921.
Rhett, Haskell – Planter. A planter working on the Edisto River in 1893.
Scott, George – Broker. A credit officer and bookkeeper for Wilbur & Co. Appears in Rice Co v. West Point.
Searson, A. Z. – Planter. A Combahee River planter near the end of rice culture.
Selby, R. H. – Planter. He planted Sportsman’s Retreat in Monck’s Corner area during Reconstruction.
Sellers, B. T.. – Overseer. The agent or overseer of Clay Hall for Henry H. Fuller in 1876. He was previously employed by Williams Middleton on Hobonny.
Sheppard, John L. – Broker. He eventually incorporated as the Carolina Rice Company. He was active from 1865 to at least 1913. He was probably a partner in the firm of Sheppard and Porcher in 1893.
Sheppard, W. G. – Broker. He was the manager of Carolina Rice Company in 1911. He was son of John Sheppard.
Simons, Keating Sr. – Planter. He operated Lewisfield in the Monks Corner district during Reconstruction.
Smith, D. E. Huger – Broker. A Savannah area broker in the firm of Howards & Smith 1870s.
Smith, Henry A. M. – Lawyer, historian. He was an important antiquarian and author that preserved records of rice culture.
Smyth, Robert A. – Factor. He was a partner in Smyth and Adger rice factors in Charleston 1890s.
Smyth, J. Adger – Factor He was a partner in Smyth and Adger rice factors in Charleston 1890s.
Sparkman, W. E. – Planter. He planted Springwood in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Spights, Evander M. – Planter. A planter on the Ashepoo River in 1893 perhaps at White House.
Stoney, Samuel Galliard Captain (1853-May 26, 1927) – Planter, miller. He planted Medway plantation and president of West Point Rice Mill he also served as President of the S. C. Agricultural Society until his death.
Tucker, Daniel – Planter. He planted Holly Grove in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Tucker, Henry – Planter. He planted Litchfield in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Tucker, Joseph R. – Planter. He planted Bates Hill in Georgetown area during Reconstruction.
Wagener, Frederick W. – Planter. He co-owned and operated: Oaks, Drainfield, Lavington, Bugbee, Fee Farm, and Godfrey on the Ashepoo River from 1881 to 1910.
Wagener, George A. – Planter. He co-owned and operated: Oaks, Drainfield, Lavington, Bugbee, Fee Farm, and Godfrey on the Ashepoo River from 1881 to 1910.
Ward, B. Huger – Planter. He operated Prospect Hill and Alderly in Georgetown during Reconstruction.
Whipper, W. J. – Planter, Politician. Whipper was a Freedman and planter. During Reconstruction he ran a plantation somewhere on the Ashepoo River. He was also a prominent political figure in the state.
White, J. St. Cloud – Planter. He was called the best planter on the Cooper River by T. Ravenel.
Whitesides, John – Planter. He operated White House plantation in Christ Church – St. James Santee during Reconstruction.
Wieters, J. F. – Broker. He acted as a wholesale grocer and sometime rice broker circa 1912.
Williams, W. M. – Planter. He planted Washington in Monk’s Corner area during Reconstruction.
The information in the Biographical Dictionary is drawn from many sources both published and unpublished.
Unpublished sources at the South Carolina Historical Society, South Caroliniana Library, College of Charleston Special Collections, Southern Historical Collection of the University of North Carolina, Perkins Library of Duke University were especially important.
Published sources of greatest value to the Dictionary include: Doar, David. Rice and Rice Planting In the South Carolina Low Country. Edited by E. Milby Burton, Contributions from the Charleston Museum. Charleston: The Charleston Museum, 1936. Rice, James Henry Jr. The Aftermath of Glory. Charleston: Walker, Evans & Cogswell, 1934. Linder, Suzanne Cameron and Marta L. Thacker. Historical Atlas of the Rice Plantations of Georgetown County and the Santee River. Columbia: SC Department of Archives and History, 2000. Linder, Suzanne Cameron. Historical Atlas of the Rice Plantations of the ACE River Basin - 1860. Columbia, S.C.: South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1995. Stoney, Samuel Gaillard. Plantations of The Carolina Low Country. Charleston, S.C.: Carolina Art Association, 1964.